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Commonly used classical cryptographic protocols, such as the RSA-protocol, rely on the hardness of computational problems. With the advent of quantum computing (QC), the hardness assumptions of these problems is nullified, since they can be solved efficiently on a QC. On the other hand, the security of Quantum key distribution (QKD) rests upon the very laws of physics and guarantees information-theoretic security, which not only enables tap-proof communication at present, but also prevents any future technology to crack encrypted messages.

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Quantum algorithms process information stored in qubits, the basic memory unit of quantum processors, and quantum operations (called gates) are the building blocks of quantum algorithms. In order to be run on quantum computing hardware, quantum algorithms must be compiled into a set of elementary machine instructions (i.e., quantum gates).

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